Outline on the political and moral state of Peru

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ISBN illustrated paperback: 9788498161151
ISBN hardcover: 9788490071793
ISBN paperback: 9788498165876

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A sketch on the political and moral state of Peru contains an arduous reflection on the political history of Peru during the first half of the 19th century. José Manuel Valdez y Palacios emphasizes the activity of Simón Bolívar and the chain of pacts and warlike actions that marked his existence.
The work is subdivided into three parts comprising:

  • the pre-independence period, from the conquest until 1820;
  • the period of Independence, from 1820 to 1824;
  • and the period of the Republic, from the battle of Ayacucho to the fall of La Mar.

The first section of the outline is divided into seven chapters that successively address topics such as the natural wealth of the territory, the geographical description of Peru, and a balance of its industry, agriculture and commerce. Valdez concludes with an analysis of literature and religion.
In the second part or section, he moves on to the study of independence. He is meticulous in portraying the transition from the governments of San Martín to that of Bolívar and devotes long pages to the description and praise of the battles of Junín and Ayacucho.
In the third and last part, the judgment of Bolivar, the detailed account of the events of the government of La Mar, among which the campaign against Colombia and the fall of the president stand out.

“The political vicissitudes of Peru, the picture of which is quickly sketched in this work, I believe will serve for history, and as a lesson to the men and peoples of South America who wish to lose themselves along the same path. Many are those who have issued their judgments on Peru; but the opinions expressed and the facts cited have been erroneous or false, because, being foreigners, they had neither the time nor the occasions necessary to initiate themselves in the internal affairs of the country, since the relations of the latter with other countries have been almost non-existent, by reason, of its disturbances, and because its policy, reduced to a small sphere, has given no opportunity for foreign inspection.
As far as I am concerned, I have been a spectator of the bloody drama that has been taking place in Peru for fifteen years. When I returned to Lima, General Gamarra had just sat in the presidential chair, removing General La Mar, the first president of the republic, by means of a military revolt, which was the first rifle in the chain of revolutions that followed. This circumstance, together with others which the duty of one who writes for the public forbids me to express, enables me to present a true, though imperfect, sketch of the political state of Peru, at the time of its independence; and, as governments and revolutions stamp their stamp on letters and customs, I judge I am also qualified to offer a sketch of the moral and literary state of that country; which will always be based on truth, though devoid of all the caste of literary merit.”

Excerpt from the Outline on the political and moral state of Peru.

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