Book III. Epilogue. Apostasies. Judaizers and Mohammedans

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History of the heterodox Spaniards. Book III. Epilogue. Apostasies. Judaizers and Mohammedans

Epilogue. Apostasies. Judaizers and Mohammedans

I. Preliminaries. II. Proselytism of the Hebrews since the Visigothic era. Judaizers after the edict of Sisebuto. Vicissitudes of the Jews in the Peninsula. Conversions after the killings. Let the Holy Office be established against Judaizers or relapses. First acts of that Court. III. “Mohammedans”. Uprisings and wars of the “muladíes” under the Caliphate of Córdoba. Renegades and Muslim civilization. Fray Anselmo de Turmeda, Garci-Ferrandes de Gerena and other apostates

I. Preliminaries

The picture that we present in this book of medieval aberrations in point to religion would not be complete if we dispensed with two very powerful elements of loss and fall: Judaism and Mohammedanism. Not because we should make the history of Jews and Muslims the subject of this appendix, since those who were never baptized can hardly figure in a History of the heterodox, but because heretics are the apostates, according to the authoritative opinion of the Holy Office, which always names them so in its sentences. I know that this Spanish custom does not fit very well with the general opinion of canonists and theologians, who make a clear distinction between the crime of heresy and that of apostasy. But, to tell the truth, this distinction is one of degrees, and if we adopt the more general word, heterodoxy, to designate every opinion that departs from the faith, no one will lead to harm that, even as an appendix, we treat Judaizers and Mohammedans, much more considering the intimate link of some apostasies with the events narrated in previous chapters. We will start with the Judaic influence, much older in our soil.

II. Proselytism of the Hebrews since the Visigothic era. Judaizers after the edict of Sisebuto. Vicissitudes of the Jews in the Peninsula. Conversions after the killings. Let the holy office be established against Judaizers or relapses. First acts of that Tribunal

Mr. Amador de los Ríos, whose recent loss the studies of Spanish scholarship mourn, described with neatness and copy of truly estimable news the vicissitudes of the people of Israel on our soil. To his book and to those of Graetz, Kayserling and Bedarride can go the curious in demand of more news about the untos that I am going to indicate, because I do not like to redo bed works -and not bad- before now.
It would be in vain to deny, as do modern Jewish historians and those who without being so constitute champions of their cause, sometimes out of affection with the matter, or out of ill will to Spain and the Catholic Church, that the peninsular Hebrews showed very early longings for proselytism, this being not the least cause for the hatred and suspicion with which the Christian people began to look at them. Opinion already ordered to withdraw is that which supposes the Jews and other Semitic peoples Incommunicable and involved in themselves. Did they not spread their religion among the pagans of the empire? Does not Tacitus speak of transgressi in morem Iudaeorum? Doesn’t Josephus say that many Greeks embraced the Law? And Juvenal, has he not kept us news of the Romans, who, disdaining national beliefs, learned and observed what Moses taught in his arcane volume? The women of Damascus were almost all Jewish in Josephus’ time; and in Thessalonica and Beroe there were a great number of proselytes, as we read in the Acts of the Apostles.
It is true that this influence, which among the Gentiles, and by high judgments of God, served to pave the way to the New Law, was to encounter insurmountable obstacles in front of this same law. What kind of proselytes were the Jews to make among the disciples of Him who did not come to loose the law, but to fulfill it? The truth, the way, and the life were in Christianity, while, blind and enlightened, those who did not know the Messiah were sinking deeper and deeper into Talmudic superstitions.

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