Act of Independence of the Isthmus of Panama

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The Act of Independence of the Isthmus of Panama was declared on November 28, 1821 and consists of 12 articles that express the sovereign will of the region. The three most relevant articles are:

  1. Panama declares itself free and independent of the Spanish government, spontaneously and in accordance with the general vote of the peoples of its understanding.
  2. The territory of the provinces of the Isthmus belongs to the republican state of Colombia, to whose Congress its deputy will represent in due course.
  3. The Isthmus, through its representatives, will form the economic regulations convenient for its internal government, and in the meantime will govern the laws in force in that part that do not contradict its present statute.

In the General Meeting of all Civil, Military and Ecclesiastical Corporations held today, November 28, 1821 at the invitation of His Excellency Town hall; After the most careful discussions before a numerous people, and under the greatest order and concord, the following articles were agreed upon and decreed by common accord.

1. Panama spontaneously and in accordance with the general vote of the peoples of its comprehension, declares itself free and independent of the Spanish government.

2. The territory of the Provinces of the Isthmus belongs to the Republican State of Colombia, to whose congress its Deputy shall opportunely represent.

3. The Individuals of the troop that garrisons this square, remain at the absolute liberty to take the party that suits them, and in the event that they want to return to Spain, they will be given all the necessary assistance for their transport to the Island of Cuba, to which keeping the honors of war, they will continue to the Ports of Chagre or Portobelo, after the Castles are in the power of the New Government, all officers, sergeants and soldiers being obliged under the due oath, to remain calm, not to make any tortions or to take up arms against the independent States of America, during the present war.

4. The sick who are in the Hospital shall be assisted by the Government, and after they recover they shall be given the necessary assistance in accordance with Article 3.

5. The Superior Chief of the Isthmus declares himself, that it is Mr. José de Fábrega, colonel who was in the Spanish Armies; remaining on the same footing as all the Corporations and authorities as well as civil and ecclesiastical.

6. The Superior Chief shall take all such economic measures as may be necessary for the preservation of public tranquillity.

7. The authorities shall take the oath of independence at the event, with the following Sunday being marked for publication with due solemnity.

8. The Superior Chief in union with the Commanders of the corps will officiate to the one of the fortress of Chagres and detachment of Portobelo, so that the officer who presents the orders, deliver these points in the military style.

9. The Isthmus, through its representatives, shall form the economic regulations suitable for its internal government, and in the meantime, shall govern the laws in that part which do not contradict its present state.

10. The public debt recognized by the Treasury shall be paid under the agreements stipulated in its principle.

11. For the indispensable expenses, the Political Head will open a loan that will be recognized as part of the public debt.

12. The preceding Chapters will be printed and circulated to all the Peoples of the Isthmus, so that the disagreements that agitate them may cease, remitting the help that this Capital needs, to carry out such a glorious enterprise, as they have offered.
(Signed) José de Fábrega. José Higinio Durán, Bishop of Panama. Juan Jose Martinez. Doctor Carlos Icaza. Manuel José Calvo. Mariano de Arosemena. Luis Lasso de la Vega. José Antonio Zerda. Juan Herrera and Torres. Juan José Calvo. Narciso de Urriola. Remigio Lasso de la Vega. Manuel de Arze. José de Alba. Gregorio Gomez. Luis Salvador Duran. Jose Maria Herrera. Manuel María de Ayala. Victor de Beltrán. Antonio Bermejo. Antonio Planas. Juan Pio Victoria. Doctor Manuel de Urriola. Jose Vallarino Jimenez. Manuel José Hurtado. Manuel García de Paredes. Doctor Manuel José de Arce. José María Calvo. Antonio Escobar. Gaspar Arosemena. José de los Santos Correoso. Notary Public.

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